Crude Glycerin Specifications
Crude Glycerine is a co-product in the manufacturing of oleo-chemical products. Some of its generating processes are the production of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, methyl esters, biodiesel, and soaps.
One of the commercial processes that manufactures this chemical as a by-product, is the treatment of triglycerides with an alcohol such as ethanol, in the presence of a catalytic base to give ethyl esters or fatty acids with crude glycerine. Before being used, most of the time this chemical will have to be purified to Refined Glycerine first. It ranges from around 65% to 85% while Refined Glycerine mostly around 99.5% to 99.7%, USP or BP grade is also available. Detailed specifications of different grades and sources could be found in the Crude Glycerine MSDS & TDS section below.
The Manufacturing Process
The crude glycerine manufacturing process starts with the degumming process of vegetable oil involves the removal of phosphatides from vegetable oil by centrifugation. Water is added to the mixture to allow the precipitation of phosphatides dissolved in oil. The precipitated phosphatides become heavier in mass due to the high water content absorbed. The centrifugation process allows phosphatides to migrate to the water phase; therefore, removing impurities in the oil. Degumming is required to refine the quality of the vegetable oil and allows longer storage time.
The vegetable oils undergo deacidification through a series of solvent extraction processes. The initial vegetable oil is mixed in methanol by agitation. The existing free fatty acid in the oil will preferably dissolve in methanol and decrease the concentration in the oil. As free fatty acid is the cause of the oxidation and unpleasant scent of the oil, it is essential to remove the compound from the oil to promote storage time and refining.
The deacidified oil is decomposed through a process called hydrolysis. The process utilizes water to break down the chains of triglycerides into glycerol/glycerine and fatty acid under high temperature and pressure. In this step, glycerine becomes available for extraction and undergoes further refining.
Triglycerides are treated with ethanol to produce crude glycerine in the presence of a catalytic base to yield ethyl esters of fatty acids. Before being used, crude glycerine will have to be purified to refined glycerine most of the time. USP or BP grade of crude glycerine ranges from around 65% to 85%, while refined glycerine is mostly 99.5% to 99.7%.
Crude Glycerine Applications
Crude glycerine has a high metabolizable – digestible energy ratio that is almost identical to soybean oil. The source of energy from glycerine is used to feed cattle and other herbivorous animal farms. Crude glycerol uses in the production of animal and poultry feed as a source of carbohydrates. It also has a high absorption rate in animals and is rich in energy. Once absorbed by animals, it is converted to glucose by the enzyme glycerol kinase for energy production in the liver of animals.
Crude glycerine can be further processed into a pure form, creating refined glycerine. It is also used to manufacture epichlorohydrin, which is used to manufacture epoxy resin. Crude glycerol can also be used to manufacture 1,3-propanediol.nature. The remaining crude glycerine is utilized as an intermediary chemical through thermo-chemical conversions. The product propylene glycol is manufactured from crude glycerine through a process called hydrogenolysis. Propylene glycol is utilized as an antifreeze compound and as a fuel additive in methanol-fueled vehicles.
Crude glycerol uses in the composting through various biological conversions. The product succinic acid is produced from the fermentation process of crude glycerine with the bacterium Anaerobiospirillum succinici. In addition, further research has suggested that algal fermentation may convert crude glycerine into omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.