Crude Glycerine Palm Based
The degumming process of vegetable oil is conducted by the removal of phosphatides from vegetable oil via centrifugation. Next, water is added to allow the precipitation of phosphatides dissolved in oil. The precipitated phosphatides increase in mass due to the high water content absorbed. Hence, the centrifugation process allows phosphatides to migrate to the water phase. Any impurities of phosphatides in the oil phase are removed. Degumming is required to refine the quality of the vegetable oil and allows longer storage time.
The vegetable oils undergo deacidification via solvent extraction method. Initially, vegetable oil is mixed in methanol by agitation. The oil’s free fatty acid content will preferably dissolve in methanol to decrease the acid content in the oil. Free fatty acid accelerates oil oxidation and causes unpleasant odour of the oil. Therefore, it is essential to remove the compound from the oil to promote storage time and refining.
3. Transeferication / Saponification
The deacidified oil is broken down through a process called saponification. The process involves water to break down the chains of triglycerides into glycerol/glycerine and fatty acid under high temperature and pressure. In this step, glycerine becomes available for extraction and undergoes further refining.
Crude glycerine has a high metabolizable – digestible energy ratio that is almost identical to soybean oil. The source of energy from glycerine is used to feed cattle and other herbivorous animal farms.
2. Chemical Intermediate
The remaining crude glycerine is utilized as an intermediary chemical through thermo-chemical conversions. The product propylene glycol is manufactured from crude glycerine through a process called hydrogenolysis. The propylene glycol is utilized as an antifreeze compound and as a fuel additive in methanol fueled vehicles.
Crude glycerine is able to be used in composting through various biological conversions. The product succinic acid is produced from the fermentation process of crude glycerine with the bacterium Anaerobiospirillum succinici. In addition, further research has suggested that algal fermentation may convert crude glycerine into omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
The crude glycerine is produced with around 70% of purity. The percentage of purity is based on the capacity of the distillation process and the equipment. The higher the purity, the more sophisticated and energy intensive the distillation process will be.
80% Min. MONG ≤ 20% Grade
MONG is described as the amount of impurities in the crude glycerine. Crude glycerine produced in biodiesel fuel is known to have large amounts of impurities as it is a by-product of another process. The MONG of the crude glycerine is set to have less than 20% via purification and distillation process.
80% Min pH 6-8 Grade
With a pH of between 6 and 8, crude glycerine is produced with about 80% purity. The capacity of the distillation process and the equipment determine the purity percentage. The distillation process becomes increasingly complex and energy-intensive as purity increases.